PECULIARITIES OF THE CHARACTER’S INNER WORLD REPRESENTATION WITH THE HELP OF INTERNAL FOCALIZATION IN NARRATIVE MODELS OF THE 2010’S UKRAINIAN STORY

Keywords: internal focalization, narrative model, narrator, narration, 2010’s Ukrainian story

Abstract

Background. The story genre with its inherent narrative slowness, attention to the past events, author’s voice sensitivity, lyrical flow (updated since the 1960’s) and expressive narrative organization retains its relevance in modern Ukrainian prose. The search for literature revealed few studies which investigate poetic identity of the 2010’s Ukrainian story. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine this genre’s narrative specificity, particularly in terms of internal focalization realization, which expresses the protagonist’s characterization in various narrative models. Purpose. The aim of this research is to explore features of exposing the person’s inner world through the prism of inner focalization in the 2010’s Ukrainian story. This study applies narrative analysis, comparative, systematic, and receptive aesthetics methods. Results. Contemporary Ukrainian story (texts by V. Danylenko, A. Dnistrovyi, S. Yovenko, O. Zabuzhko, T. Zarivna, Ye. Kononenko, M. Matios, S. Protsuk and others) reflects closely on the complexity of human existence, which is visualized through several narrative models. In this study, the concept of narrative model is interpreted as a replicable example of narrative unfolding in the text, which is realized in interaction between reference and communicative events and should be considered in terms of explicit and implicit components of narrative structure (narrative type, focalization, author’s intention, etc.), and the «author – text – recipient» triad (with all its variations). This paper demonstrates that linear-retrospective, linear-prospective and non-linear in-depth psychoanalytic narrative models involve internal focalization – the position of the reality depiction, when the narrator articulates what the character knows. The linear-retrospective narrative model directly reproduces the memories of the characters-narrators («Albina» Ye. Kononenko) or unfolds as a narrator’s story, which can be interspersed with the character’s voice («Armageddon Has Already Happened» M. Matios, «Kyiv, Get Up!» S. Yovenko). The «omniscient» narrator in the linear-prospective narrative model rarely changes focalization, preferring to illuminate the character’s experience directly («Notes on the Edge» T. Zarivna, «Breakfast on the Snow» A. Dnistrovyi).The non-linear in-depth psychoanalytic narrative model, in which characters find out the secrets of their (un)conscious existence, intensively involves the internal focalization («Bang Your Head Against the Wall» S. Protsiuk, «Shadows in the Tarnovsky Estate» V. Danylenko). Discussion. The internal focalization in modern Ukrainian story is especially productive in those narrative models that detail reality in the dimension of understanding character’s memories and reflections (linear-retrospective and non-linear in-depth psychoanalytic narrative models). Сreated space of «intimate» dialogue with the reader expands genre and problem-thematic narrative borders. Texts of the linear-prospective narrative model, preserving the immanent features of the story as a genre and «omniscient» narrator, involve internal focalization less actively. Further research should be undertaken to clarify genre and narrative coordinates of nowadays’ story.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aheieva, V. (2012). Vstup [Introduction]. In: Aheieva, V. (Ed.). Pislia postmodernizmu? [After postmodernism?] (pp. 4–7). Kyiv: NaUKMA; Ahrar Media Hrup [in Ukrainian].
Dnistrovyi, A. (2014). Snidanok na snihu [Breakfast on the Snow]. In: Dnistrovyi, A. Snidanok na snihu: zbirka [Breakfast on the Snow: the collection] (pp. 7 –139). Kharkiv: Klub Simeinoho Dozvillia [in Ukrainian].
Genette, G. (1998). Figury [Figures]: V 2 t. Moskva: Izd-vo im. Sabashnikovykh [in Russian]. Retrieved from: http://yanko.lib.ru/books/lit/jennet-figuru-1-2-1998-l.pdf
Zarivna, T. (2017). Zapysy na podolku [Notes on the Edge]. In: Zarivna, T. Skhodzhennia na Kaizervald [Ascent of Kaiservald] (pp. 102–133). Lviv: Vydavnytstvo Staroho Leva [in Ukrainian].
Yovenko, S. (2017). Kyiv, vstavai! [Kyiv, Get Up!]. Kyiv, 1–2, 2–43 [in Ukrainian].
Kononenko, Ye. (2015). Albina [Albina]. In: Kononenko, Ye. Symbalain. Povist, novely, poezii [Symbalain. Story, short stories, poetry] (pp. 53–108). Lviv: Kalvariia [in Ukrainian].
Lavrusenko, M. (2019). Psykhoanaliz yak kliuch do interpretatsii rodynnykh stosunkiv u povisti Volodymyra Danylenka «Tini v maietku Tarnovskykh» [Psychoanalysis as a key to interpretation of family relations in the story by Volodymyr Danylenko «Shadows in the Tarnovsky Estate»]. Molodyi vchenyi – Young Scientist, 7 (71), 278–282 [in Ukrainian].
Matios, M. (2011). Armahedon uzhe vidbuvsia: Povist [Armageddon Has Already Happened: Story]. Lviv: Piramida [in Ukrainian].
Nehodiaieva, S. (2013) Restavratsiia arkhetypu bat’ka v retseptsii Yaroslava Melnyka (na materiali povisti «Telefonui meni, hovory zi mnoiu») [Restoration of father’s archetype in the reception by Yaroslav Melnyk (based on the story «Call me, talk to me»)]. Visnyk LNU imeni Tarasa Shevchenka. Filolohichni nauky – Bulletin of Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University. Philological Sciences, 4 (263). Ch. II, 160–167 [in Ukrainian].
Nykoliuk, T. (2014). Psykholohichnyi portret tvorchoi osobystosti u povisti Volodymyra Danylenka «Sonechko moie, chorne y volokhate» [Psychological profile of a creative person in the story by Volodymyr Danylenko «My dear Sunny, black and hairy»]. Aktualni problemy ukrainskoi literatury i folkloru – Actual problems of ukrainian literature and folklore, 21–22, 27–34 [in Ukrainian].
Polishchuk, Ya. (2019). Dyskusiinist’ ta vycherpanist’ postmodernistskoho proiektu [Controversy and Exhaustion of Postmodernistic Project]. Slovo i Chas – Word and Time, 4, 22–29 [in Ukrainian].
Protsiuk, S. (2018). Byisia holovoiu do stiny: povist [Bang Your Head Against the Wall: Story]. Brusturiv: Dyskursus [in Ukrainian].
Ricoeur, P. (1998). Vremya i rasskaz. T. 1. Intriga i istoricheskiy rasskaz [Time and Narrative. Vol. 1. Intrigue and Historical Narrative]. Moskva; Sankt-Peterburg: Universitetskaya kniga [in Russian].
Ricoeur, P. (2004). Pamyat’, istoriya, zabvenie [Memory, History, Forgetting]. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo gumanitarnoj literatury [in Russian].
Tiupa, V. (2002). Ocherk sovremennoy narratologii [Essay on Modern Narratology]. Kritika i semiotika – Critique and Semiotics, 5, 5–31 [in Russian].
Bal, M. (1997). Narratology: introduction to the theory of narrative. Second Edition. Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/28730312/Narratology_Introduction_to_the_Theory_of_Narrative_Second_Edition_UNIVERSITY_OF_TORONTO_PRESS

Abstract views: 6
PDF Downloads: 6 PDF Downloads: 0
Published
2021-08-08
How to Cite
Reznichenko, J. (2021). PECULIARITIES OF THE CHARACTER’S INNER WORLD REPRESENTATION WITH THE HELP OF INTERNAL FOCALIZATION IN NARRATIVE MODELS OF THE 2010’S UKRAINIAN STORY. Journal “Ukrainian sense”, 1(1), 116-124. https://doi.org/10.15421/462110