DIACHRONIC PREREQUISITES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE CATEGORY OF FUTURALITY IN MODERN FRENCH LANGUAGE

Keywords: futurality, prospectiveness, Latin, wish, subjunctive mood, imperative mood

Abstract

Abstract Background. The problem of Future tense formation is known to be one of the central investigation topics in the sphere of grammar typology of the Romanic languages. The problem has to do with the aspects of diachronic grounds of Future tense as well as with the issue of its evolution, starting from classical Latin. The predicative structure of a Latin sentence, having defined its language status as that of a separate modus category with definite modal meanings, played the most important role in the formation of the category of futurality in Contemporary French. The purpose of the research under consideration has been to trace the diachronic prospect of the process of the category of futurality formation at the level of the language system of contemporary French formation from the beginning till modern period, i.e. from Latin as the source of the Western-European subgroup. Methods. The methods used in the article are those applied to the typology categories of the Central European language standard of tense – the method of diachronic analysis, that gives an opportunity to investigate the process of CF of French development from Latin till the modern period, and comparative method which allows to identify the peculiarity of CF in contemporary French, to determine its structural and system individuality among other languages of the Western-European subgroup. Results. Future tenses of the French language are characterized by the drastic change of the grammatical status in Indicatif, as compared to the semantics of future in Latin, where it was found in Conjunctīvus and Indicatīvus. In Conjunctīvus the connotation of wish is expressed by two semantic variants - Conjunctīvus of optatīvus volitīvus (conjunctive with semantics of will or wish) and  Conjunctīvus of prospectīvus (conjunctive with semantics of prediction). Wish expressed by the forms of Conjunctīvus of potentiālis is mostly connected with the semantics of potential or unreal condition. Wish expressed by imperative mood (Imperatīvus) is formally distinguished into Imperatīvus presentis activi and Conjunctīvus imperatīvus with the range of modal nuances attributed to them. Wish as the key semantic intermediary link that forms the category of futurality in Latin has similar nuances with CF in French. The usage of the form of Conjunctīvus, expressing the so-called «prospective», has become its distinguishing feature. The prospective of Latin had the anticipating semantics of future just as the future tenses Indicatīvus, expressing a simple wish of the speaker, deprived of any evaluation.     Discussion. Prospective, planning character of future was formed in Latin, namely – by the form of Conjunctīvus. In due course French, having experienced the divergent way of its grammatical system development, worked out another «decision», simultaneously preserving this conceptual feature.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Болдырев, Н. Н. (2016). Категориальное значение глагола: системный и функциональный аспекты. Москва-Берлин: Директ-Медиа.
Васильева, Н. М. & Пицкова, Л. П. (1991). Французский язык: Теоретическая грамматика: Морфология: Синтаксис. Москва: Высшая школа.
Гончарова, Н. А. (1998). Латинский язык. Минск: ИП «Экоперспектива».
Загайська, Г. (2017). Рецензія на монографію Б. В. Чернюха «Латинське дієслово: аспект і акціональність». Південний архів: зб. наук. праць «Філологічні науки», 67, 218–220.
Кірковська, І. С. (2018). Вступ до романської філології. Дніпро: «Пороги».
Козаржевский, А. Ч. (1981). Учебник латинского языка для нефилологических гуманитарных факультетов университетов. Москва: Изд-во Мос. ун-та.
Логунов, Т. А. (2007). Аналитические формы будущего времени как лингвистический феномен: на материале английского и русского языков: дис. … канд. филол. наук. Кемерово.
Марузо, Ж. (1960). Словарь лингвистических терминов. Москва.
Миронова, В. М. (2004). Латина наприкінці імператорської епохи: стан і проблеми розвитку. Актуальні проблеми української лінгвістики: теорія і практика, 9, 12–20.
Плунгян, В. А. (2000). Общая морфология. Введение в проблематику. Москва: Эдиториал УРСС.
Семенюк, С. И. (1972). Учение русских грамматиков о глаголе: автореф. дис. … канд. филол. наук. Львов.
Степанов, Ю. С. (1975). Основы общего языкознания. Москва: Просвещение.
Тарасова, Е. В. (1991). Языковое поле как единица дидактической типологии. Харьков: ХГУ.
Чернюх, Б. В. (1993). Категорії виду і часу в дієслівній системі латинської мови І-ІІ ст. н.е.: автореф. дис. … канд. філол. наук. Львів.
Чернюх, Б. В. (2017). Латинське дієслово: аспект і акціональність. Львів: ЛНУ ім. І. Франка.
Barbet, C. (2008). Les verbes modaux devoir et pouvoir en ancien et moyen français: éléments pour une étude diachronique. Le français en diachronie. Madrid. URL: https://studylibfr.com/doc/ 2055983/les-verbes-modaux-devoir-et-pouvoir-en-ancien-et-moyen-fr
Chaurand, J. (1999). Nouvelle Histoire de la langue française. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
Dictionnaire de Linguistique et des sciences du langage (DL). (1994). / Sous la rédaction de J. Dubois. Paris: Larousse.
Glessgen, M. (2008). Dietrich Linguistique romane. Demaines et méthodes en linguistique française et romane. Paris: Armand Colin.
Hopper, P. J. & Traugott, E. C. (1993). Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Malengrau, M. (1995). La correspondance scientifique de Gustave Guillaume [à M. Lejeune, G. Moignet et B. Pottier (juillet 1948-février 1960)]. Lille: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.
Moignet, Y. (1981). Systématique de la langue française. Paris: Klinkseick.
Perret, M. (2016). Introduction à l’histoire de la langue française. Paris: Armand Colin.

Abstract views: 11
PDF Downloads: 15
Published
2022-02-22
How to Cite
Kirkowska, I. (2022). DIACHRONIC PREREQUISITES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE CATEGORY OF FUTURALITY IN MODERN FRENCH LANGUAGE. Journal “Ukrainian sense”, 1(2), 82-92. https://doi.org/10.15421/462121