STRUCTURE OF THE NOMINATIVE FIELD "MAN BY AGE" IN THE SPACE OF THE EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY

Keywords: age-related naming of a person, nominative field, lexicographic interpretation

Abstract

Abstract Background. The paper deals with the study of lexicographical implementation of the structure of a nominative field «Age-related naming of a person» (ARNP) in the Russian language. Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to identify the structure of a nominative field «Age-related naming of a person» (ARNP) represented in the «Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language including the word-origin information» (EDRL/ТСРЯ). Methods. The paper involves an inductive-deductive method that means observation, analysis, and generalization of the material; a descriptive method; a method of component analysis of dictionary definitions based on a procedure of degree-based identification; a method of interpretation of the obtained results; a technique of continuous sampling of the material from the explanatory dictionary and a technique of quantitative calculation.  Results. A structure of the ARNP nominative field has been processed in terms of 260 dictionary entries of the EDRL containing 298 LSVs and 1133 lexemes to denote a person. It has been identified that the field under consideration consists of five basic microfields: «Childhood», «Boyhood», «Youth», «Adulthood», and «Oldness» represented in such LSG as «Names of babies», «Names of children (3-12 years old)», «Names of teen-agers», «Names of young people», «Names of adults», and «Names of aged people» as well as in 11 groups including the names with the implicit seme «age» being general for different LSGs. The main parts of the whole LSG includes 168 of 1133 lexemes; the general parts of them includes 965 ones. Such a quantitative advantage of nominations being not differentiated in terms of age can tell about the fact the native speakers considers important to make value judgments, describe features of one’s character, behaviour, social status etc. related to some specific age than the pure nomination of someone’s age. Owing to that, the whole layers of undifferentiated nominations  are being formed, which are general for people of different age. The quantitative composition of such nominations and their distribution among different  LSGs contain certain information as well. It has been identified that according to EDRL, a microsystem of children nominations is the most detailed one in the Russian language; in general, the microsystem contains 293 nominations, among which 146 lexemes denote babies and 153 lexemes denote children being 3-12 years old. Next, there are the names of young people (208 lexemes) and teen-agers (191 units). Generally, the dictionary records 698 nominations of a person from childhood up to adulthood while the nominations of mature and aged people are approximately the same in their numbers (136 and 131 units respectively), making up 267 lexemes altogether that is by 2.6 times less than the previous LSG. Obviously, such a symmetry in the age-related names of people is stipulated by the status of age groups in social life, i.e. dependence of children and teen-agers, the necessity to grow them up and take care of them. Discussion. The age-related nominative field to designate people recorded in «Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language including the word-origin information» is the branched system of naming connected with the explicit or implicit seme «age of a person». A structure of that system can be represented as a series of concentric circles arranged around the centre (core) consisting of five microfields represented by the corresponding LSG. There are 11 groups made up by the nominations with the implicit «age-related» semes located sequentially between the centre and the following circles. Due to the undifferentiated nature of the age-related seme, semantics of such names makes it possible to relate them simultaneously to several microfields and their corresponding LSG. Analysis of quantitative parameters of the content of different LSGs has identified the lexicographically recorded asymmetry in the nomination of people in terms of their age stipulated by social and psychological factors and peculiar for the Russian language in general. The research prospects are in the comparative study of lexicographic interpretation of the ARNP nominative field in different explanatory dictionaries; that will help obtain more integral structure of both the field under consideration and in the description of stylistic and semantic (synonymic, antonymic) naming paradigms it includes.

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Published
2022-02-23
How to Cite
Prystaiko, T. (2022). STRUCTURE OF THE NOMINATIVE FIELD "MAN BY AGE" IN THE SPACE OF THE EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY. Journal “Ukrainian sense”, 1(2), 154-164. https://doi.org/10.15421/462128