THE CONCEPT OF MODALITY AND LANGUAGE MEANS OF ITS EXPRESSION IN ENGLISH

Keywords: translation, modality, modal words, modal verbs, predicativity, modality of the text

Abstract

Abstract Background. The article is devoted to the issue of theoretical analysis of the category of modality and the systematization of the linguistic means of its expression in English, since when translating works of fiction, the translator encounters a huge number of authors who actively use modal verbs, which often requires a search for certain constructions for their expression. The relevance of the study lies in the need for a comprehensive theoretical consideration of the category of modality, means of its expression, systematization of modal words and clarification of the primary requirement for determining its status. The purpose of the study is to analyze functional modal vocabulary, phrases and introductory words in modern English, in defining the essence and in describing and analyzing modal words as a special part of speech, in considering modal verbs as a means of implementing the category of modality. Methods. A descriptive method that is used to describe the meanings of the means of expressing modality in order to better understand their differences. Results. During the analysis, it was found that the main means of expressing modal meanings is a mode of action, which is correlated with a special type of aesthetic modalities. The actual mode of action is correlated with the asertoric modality, the conditional – with the problematic, the imperative – with the apodictic. It was found that modality is considered a purely linguistic category. However, categorical status and the spectrum of modal meanings are studied from different angles. For a long time, modality was considered only a grammatical category. This means that in a sentence there are either objectively syntactic relations between words, or, in general, the relation of the utterance to reality, which is considered subjective-objective, that is, modal. Among modal relations, there are denial, affirmation, various modes of action, subjective shades of meanings. On the other hand, modality can be viewed as a functional-semantic category if we describe the rules for the functioning of linguistic units on the basis of the principle from function to means.  Discussion. The content of the stated can be considered as real or unreal, possible or impossible, necessary or probabilistic, desirable or undesirable, and the like. Modality is differentiated into objective and subjective. Subjective modality, unlike objective, is an optional feature of an utterance and is expressed by such means as word order, intonation, lexical repetitions, modal words and verbs, interjections, introductory words and phrases, inserted sentences, word order in a sentence. The study of the specifics of the means of expressing objective modality can become the subject of further linguistic research. Modality is a text category. It is a predicative category when it functions at the sentence level. If we consider it at the level of a phrase, it will have unpredictable signs of syntactic constructions. Modality can function at the level of a sentence, or it can go beyond it (in the text). Due to modality, the text is one whole. Phonetic, lexical and grammatical units form the modality of the text. Large texts produce functional fields. At their core are the units that have the greatest conceptual load. Objective modality is inherent only in the sentence, and subjective modality can characterize both the word and the text. The status of anthropocentrism requires attention to the category of modality in the industries that study the influence of language on human behavior and the process of his thinking, leads to the comprehension of new aspects of this category, expands the range of issues requiring further research. For translators of literary text, the described problem is important for clarifying exactly what options should be adopted for a more accurate translation of the means of expressing modality, because in many cases the meaning of modal verbs is eliminated in translation. Therefore, the topic of describing modality requires further research, namely, finding new forms and methods of translation.

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Published
2022-02-23
How to Cite
Shepel, Y., & Goncharova, M. (2022). THE CONCEPT OF MODALITY AND LANGUAGE MEANS OF ITS EXPRESSION IN ENGLISH. Journal “Ukrainian sense”, 1(2), 186-196. https://doi.org/10.15421/462131